Future development strategies for osimertinib may be dictated by difference in resistance mechanisms
Osimertinib is approved for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer in patients who develop the EGFR Thr790Met mutation after treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We assessed outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and the EGFR Thr790Met mutation who were treated with osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR TKI, after previous treatment failure with one or more other EGFR TKIs.
Eligible patients had been enrolled at one centre in the AURA study, had shown resistance to a previous EGFR TKI, and had EGFR activating mutations and acquired Thr790Met mutation detectable in tumour tissue or plasma. Patients took 20–240 mg osimertinib per day until disease progression or development of intolerable sideeffects. Plasma samples were collected every 6 weeks and tumour tissue biopsy was done at study entry and was optional after disease progression. We tested samples for resistance mechanisms, including EGFR-activating, Thr790Met, and Cys797Ser mutations, and assessed associations with overall survival, progression-free survival, and survival after disease progression.
Of 71 patients enrolled in AURA, 53 were eligible for this analysis. Median progression-free survival was 11.1 months (95% CI 8.4–13.9) and overall survival was 16.9 months (11.7–29.1). 47 patients had disease progression. Median overall survival after osimertinib progression was 5.4 months (95% CI 4.1–10.0). Plasma samples were available for 40 patients after disease progression. 12 (30%) of these had the Thr790Met mutation (four of whom also had Cys797Ser mutations). Patients without detectable EGFR-activating mutations in plasma before treatment had the best overall and post-progression survival (22.4 months, 95% CI 15.6–not reached, and 10.8 months, 7.2–not reached, respectively). Loss of the Thr790Met mutation but presence of EGFR-activating mutations in plasma were associated with the shortest progression-free survival (median 2.6 months, 95% CI 1.3–not reached). In 22 postprogression tumour samples, we found one squamous cell and two small-cell transformations. We detected Thr790Met in nine (50%) of 18 samples, Cys797Ser in two (17%) of 12, cMET amplification in five (50%) of ten, BRAF mutation in one (8%) of 13, and KRAS mutation in one (8%) of 13.
Heterogeneous resistance mechanisms developed in patients receiving osimertinib. Differences in resistance mechanisms might dictate future development strategies for osimertinib in clinical trials.
AstraZeneca, Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology.